| National College of Public Administration and Governance|
Pambansang Dalubhasaan ng Pamamahalang Pambayan
|Motto||Paglingkuran ang Sambayanan!|
|Type||University of the Philippines National College (officially Degree-Granting Unit)|
|Dean||Edna Estifania A. Co, DPA|
|College Secretary||Minerva S. Baylon, PhD|
|Location||R.P. De Guzman St., UP Diliman, Quezon City, Philippines|
|Website||UP NCPAG Website|
The U.P. National College of Public Administration and Governance is a degree-granting unit at the University of the Philippines Diliman. Founded as the Institute of Public Administration (IPA), it has produced government officials, bureaucrats, civil society leaders and academic among others. It also houses the Eastern Regional Organization on Public Administration (EROPA) secretariat and the Association of Schools of Public Administration in the Philippines (ASPAP) headquarters.
Centers and Units
- Center for Public Administration and Governance Education
- Center for Policy and Executive Development
- Center for Local and Regional Governance
- Center for Leadership, Citizenship and Democracy
The College offers the following graduate and undergraduate degree programs:
- The Bachelor of Public Administration (BPA) program is a four-year course which provides students with theoretical knowledge and practical skills in public management and instills the values of accountability, service and integrity. The latest revision of the curriculum is set to be implemented to incoming freshman of Academic Year 2013-2014.
- The Diploma in Public Management (Dip PM) program is for professional and technical personnel interested in acquiring skills and learning techniques in public management suited to their fields of specialization.
- There are three alternative plans under the Master of Public Administration (MPA) program: Plan A (thesis option), Plan B (non-thesis option), and Plan C (for mid-career professionals).
- The Doctor of Public Administration (DPA) program is designed to develop the capability of students to relate basic problems and processes of Philippine public administration to the goals of national development, interpreting day-to-day problems in terms of meaningful generalizations, devising practical solutions to these problems and pointing to their long-range implications.
|Dr. Erwin Gaspar A. Alampay||Ph.D. in Devt. Admin. & Management||University of Manchester|
|Dr. Minerva S. Baylon||Ph.D. in Devt. Admin. & Management||University of Manchester|
|Dr. Alex B. Brillantes, Jr.||Ph.D. in Political Science||University of Hawaii|
|Prof. Wilhelmina L. Cabo||Doctor of Public Administration (in progress)||University of the Philippines|
|Prof. Zita Concepcion P. Calugay||Doctor of Public Administration (in progress)||University of the Philippines|
|Prof. Alicia B. Celestino||Ph.D. Urban & Regional Planning (in progress)||University of the Philippines|
|Prof. Rizalino B. Cruz||Ph.D. Public Administration & Policy (in progress)||Florida State University|
|Dr. Jocelyn C. Cuaresma||Doctor of Public Administration||University of the Philippines|
|Dr. Edna Estifania A. Co||Doctor of Public Administration||University of the Philippines|
|Dr. J. Prospero E. De Vera III||Doctor of Public Administration||University of the Philippines|
|Dr. Faina Lucero Diola||Doctor of Public Administration||University of the Philippines|
|Dr. Ma. Oliva Z. Domingo||Doctor of Public Administration||University of the Philippines|
|Dr. Ebinezer R. Florano||Ph.D. in Public Administration||International Christian University, Japan|
|Prof. Herisadel P. Flores||Doctor of Public Administration (in progress)||University of the Philippines|
|Prof. Mark Anthony M. Gamboa||Juris Doctor||University of the Philippines|
|Prof. Simeon A. Ilago||M.A. in Policy Studies||Saitama University, Japan|
|Dr. Vicente D. Mariano||Doctor of Public Administration||University of the Philippines|
|Dr. Ma. Fe V. Mendoza||Doctor of Public Administration||University of the Philippines|
|Dr. Remigio D. Ocenar||Ph.D. in Urban & Regional Planning||University of the Philippines|
|Prof. Alvic M. Padilla||Master of Public Administration||University of the Philippines|
|Prof. Maria Victoria R. Raquiza||Doctor of Public Administration (in progress)||University of the Philippines|
|Dr. Danilo R. Reyes||Doctor of Public Administration||University of the Philippines|
|Prof. Dan A. Saguil||Master of Public Administration||University of the Philippines|
|Dr. Noriel Christopher C. Tiglao||Doctor of Civil Engineering||University of Tokyo, Japan|
|Prof. Frances Fatima M. Cabana||MSc in Urban Management & Development||Erasmus University Rotterdam, Netherlands|
|Prof. Charlie E. Cabotaje||MSc in Geo-information Management||University of Twente, Netherlands|
|Prof. Hilda B. Diokno||Master of Public Administration||University of the Philippines|
|Prof. Noreen Rose V. Gonzaga||Master of Business Administration||University of the Philippines|
|Dr. Milwida M. Guevara||Ph.D. in Public Finance||Lyceum of the Philippines University|
|Dr. Orlando S. Mercado||Ph.D. in Political Science||University of the Philippines|
|Dr. Romulo Emmanuel M. Miral, Jr.||Ph.D. in Economics||Australian National University|
|Prof. Eleanor E. Nicolas||Doctor of Social Development (in progress)||University of the Philippines|
|Prof. Ricardo L. Saludo||MSc in Public Policy & Management||University of London|
Notable Former and Retired Faculty
|Dr. Jose V. Abueva||Ph.D. in Political Science||University of Michigan|
|Dr. Ma. Concepcion P. Alfiler†||Ph.D. in Philippine Studies||University of the Philippines|
|Dr. Belinda A. Aquino||Ph.D. in Comparative Politics||Cornell University|
|Dr. Victoria A. Bautista†||Ph.D. in Sociology||Michigan State University|
|Dr. Walden S. Bello||Ph.D. in Sociology||Princeton University|
|Prof. Emilia T. Boncodin†||Ph.D. in Fiscal Policy (units)||Harvard University|
|Prof. Leonor M. Briones||Master of Public Administration||University of the Philippines|
|Dr. Ledivina V. Cariño†||Ph.D. in Sociology||Indiana University|
|Dr. Onofre D. Corpuz||Ph.D. in Pol. Economy & Government||Harvard University|
|Dr. Raul P. De Guzman†||Ph.D. in Government||Florida State University|
|Dr. Agustin B. Kintanar†||Ph.D. in Economics||Yale University|
|Dr. Perla E. Legaspi||Doctor of Public Administration||University of the Philippines|
|Dr. Joel V. Mangahas||Ph.D. in Political Science||Kobe University, Japan|
|Ph.D. in Philippine Studies||University of the Philippines|
|Prof. Romeo B. Ocampo||Ph.D. in City & Regional Planning (units)||University of California, Berkeley|
|Dr. Elena M. Panganiban†||Doctor of Public Administration||University of the Philippines|
|Dr. Nestor N. Pilar||Doctor of Public Administration||University of Southern California|
|Dr. Mila A. Reforma||Master of Public Administration||University of the Philippines|
|Prof. Jose P. Tabadda||Ph.D. in Economics (units)||Simon Fraser University, Canada|
|Dr. Proserpina D. Tapales||Ph.D. in Political Science||Northern Illinois University|
The National College of Public Administration and Governance (NCPAG) is an institution mandated to help in nation building. The college has spent almost 60 years of improving public administration and governance through education.
Established on June 15, 1952 following a recommendation from the Bell Mission, the University of the Philippines entered into a contract with the University of Michigan for technical assistance in establishing the Institute of Public Administration or the IPA.
Since its creation, the college has changed its name four times, from Institute of Public Administration to Graduate School of Public Administration to School of Public Administration to College of Public Administration and now to the National College of Public Administration and Governance. All these reflect the modifications the college made to make itself relevant to the changing times.
The first two directors of the IPA were American - Professor Lederle and Professor Heady, both from the University of Michigan. In-service and academic training were the two main educational programs of the IPA.
Three kinds of courses were conducted from 1952 to 1953, which saw the participation of a total of 2,500 government officers and employees. The academic program offered bachelors and master's degrees. Enrollment in both programs rose from 68 students during the 1st semester of 1953-1954 to "well over 200" per semester by 1955.
By 1954, Filipinos began to take over key posts in the IPA. The Filipino staff gradually took over and assumed full responsibility for the IPA when the University of Michigan contract ended in June 1956. Dean Jose Velmonte of the UP College of Business served as UP IPA Director but was soon replaced by Carlos P. Ramos.
Enrollment in the undergraduate and graduate programs continued to increase. The IPA conducted trainer-training courses and direct training for higher-level officials.
IPA was a center for research, academic and in-service training and consultation services. From the very beginning it was expected to extend its services beyond the walls of the academy and serve as a major resource of government.
Its status as a politically important government institution may be indexed by the laws which recognized its work and conferred on it additional powers as well as funds to carry out its objectives of improving public administration, modernizing the administrative machinery and increasing the capacity of the government to promote social and economic development.
In the 1960s, the IPA was made a graduate school, a school of public administration and elevation to college status. Assistant Dean Dr. Jose V. Abueva was appointed to oversee the academic program.
On its 10th year, Director Ramos affirmed that in-service training, consultation services or "extension work" was of equal importance with academic teaching and research. In line with its intended regional role, the Eastern Regional Organization for Public Administration (EROPA) was organized in 1960 with state, institutional and individual members from all over Asia and the Pacific. The IPA was made its secretariat-headquarters.
EROPA also set up a research center in Saigon, a training center in New Delhi and a local government center in Tokyo. Director Ramos was elected as the first EROPA secretary general and was re-elected to this post until 1982. In a sense, EROPA merely capped the regional and international role that the IPA played.
The UP IPA was the 1st postwar institute of its kind in Asia. It was frequently visited by foreign dignitaries and students, and emulated by several countries in the region. In the succeeding years, IPAs were organized in Iran (1954), Vietnam (1955), Pakistan (1955), Thailand, Korea, Nepal and turkey.
The educational program of the college began to be emulated as well. Other institutions started offering courses in public administration with a total of 15 colleges and universities by 1971. The programs of the college enjoyed wide acceptance and support from national and international agencies.
Its services included professional and policy advice and technical assistance to a wide variety of local, national and international institutions. It was a resource not only to the Asian region but also to the regions within the country.
The events from the mid sixties to the advent of martial law provoked crisis in the role of the college vis-à-vis government. At its founding the college was a helpmate and adviser to government. In the late 60s, there was a segment of the faculty, which was more comfortable as critic of government than as its major resource.
During martial law, the college was critical and collaborative. It displeased the dictatorship with its studies of graft and corruption, its analyses of the personalistic and closed decision-making process, the tokenism and elite orientation on several government programs. However, it continued to be a source of ideas for decentralization and other government projects like the ministry of local government, civil service commission and commission on audit and many line departments and government units.
The stature and personality of Raul de Guzman, its dean from 1973 to 1982, helped a lot during this period. His recognized expertise opened many doors for the faculty and staff, and his amiable personality gave him and them room to criticize government programs without alienating their officials.
The 1980s led to many curricular and course changes to address the issue of looking into the roots of indigenous administrative thought and practices in the country. On November 26, 1998 the UP Board of Regents (BOR) approved the transformation of the college to National College of Public Administration and Governance.
This reflects the widening focus from governmental management to a broader concern of governance for public interest. Innovations and changes in the functions and structure of the college were made.
- The Center for Public Administration and Governance Education (CPAGE) manages the academic programs which remain as the core of the college. Its current director is Dr. Minerva S. Baylon, who is also the College Secretary and NCPAG Director of Studies.
- The Center for Policy and Executive Development (CPED) is the research and extension unit for national agencies, public enterprises and international organizations. Its current director is Professor Dan A. Saguil.
- The Center for Local and Regional Governance (CLRG) established in 1965 remains in the forefront of research, consultancy services and facilitation of learning in government for local and regional levels. Its current director is Dr. Remigio Eduardo Ocenar.
- The Center for Leadership, Citizenship and Democracy (CLCD) focuses on issues on civil society and democracy. Its current director is Dr. Faina Diola.
A library that has the widest collection of books on public administration and governance supports these centers.
The college is likewise coping with the demands of information technology. Its website www.up-ncpag.org was recently re-launched.
On its 50th year, the college is conscious of its position as the nation's premier institution of higher learning in public administration and governance. The mission of the college is to strive for excellence and relevance in advancing the study and professional practice of public administration; in building capacities for executive leadership; in breaking new ground in policy and administrative research. It also serves as social critic, even as it provides technical assistance to organizations and institutions in state and local governments and to civil society.
As an institution rooted in the Philippines, it will build and nurture ties with regional and international bodies similarly seeking improvement in governance and public administration. As a learning institution, it continuously and critically strives to meet the challenges and problems of governance. In pursuing all these ends, we uphold the primacy of the public interest and high ethical standards.
The NCPAG values are service to the nation, public interest, and democratic governance. Concomitant to such principles it supports visionary leadership that is progressive and committed, transparent and accountable. As the NCPAG carries out the role of social critic it upholds academic freedom and an advocacy that is founded on social relevance and integrity consistent with the promotion of the public good.
- Case Room
- GIS Laboratory
- NCPAG Assembly Hall
- NCPAG Audio-Visual Room
- NCPAG Dome
- NCPAG Friendship Garden
- NCPAG Library
International - Whole Book
- Alampay, Erwin Gaspar A. (Ed.) (2009). Living the Information Society in Asia, IDRC and ISEAS Press, Singapore
- Alampay, E.G. in Haslam, P., Shafer, J., and Beaudet, P. (Eds) (2008), Technology and Development, in Introduction to International Development Studies: Approaches, Actors and Issues, Oxford University Press
- Baylon, Minerva S. (2010) The Political Economy of Regulation in the Philippine Power Industry, QC, NCPAG-UP and Centre on Regulation and Competition, IDPM, University of Manchester, UK.
- Brillantes, Alex B. Jr. (2008). Decentralization in the Philippines” in the Symposium on Decentralization and Local Communities: Participation, Collaboration and Better Governance", held March 4- 6, 2008 sponsored by National Graduate Institute for Policy Studies, Tokyo, Japan
- Brillantes, Alex B. Jr., Cabo WL, Celestino A., & Deva N. (2008). First Global Report: Decentralization and Local Democracy in the World United Cities and Local Governments Cities et Gouvernements Locaux Unis Ciudades y Gobiernos Locales Unidos Avinyo 15 08001 Barcelona (on-line)
- Co, Edna E.A. (2010). co-authored with N. Malaluan, A. Neame, M. Manuel, M Musngi. "Philippine Democracy Assessment: Rule of Law and Access to Justice". International Institute for Democracy and Electoral Assistance, Sweden and Action for Economic Reforms. 231 pp.
- Raquiza, Ma. Victoria R. ( 2010). Co-authored ‘Towards More Effective Aid: Report of the Southern Aid Effectiveness Commission’, April 2010, Eurodad publication, Brussels
International - Book Chapter
- Alampay, Erwin G.A. (2009). Technology and Development in Haslam, P.; Shafer, J., and Beaudet, P. (Eds), Introduction to International Development Studies: Approaches, Actors and Issues, Oxford University Press
- Alampay, Erwin G.A. (2008). Filipino entrepreneurs on the Internet: when social networking websites meet mobile commerce' in Science, Technology & Society, SAGE, New Delhi, 13:2, pp. 211-231
- Brillantes, Alex Jr. B. and Maricel T. Fernandez (2011). GOOD GOVERNANCE, SOCIAL QUALITY AND ACTIVE CITIZENSHIP: GAWAD KALINGA IN THE PHILIPPINES, International Journal of Social Quality, Volume 1 • Issue 2 • 2011 (http://journals.berghahnbooks.com/ijsq/)
- Brillantes, Alex Jr. B. and Maricel T. Fernandez (2011). RESTORING TRUST AND BUILDING INTEGRITY IN GOVERNMENT: ISSUES AND CONCERNS IN THE PHILIPPINES AND AREAS FOR REFORM, International Public Management Review, Vol. 12, Iss. 2, 2011; pp. 55-80 (http://www1.imp.unisg.ch/org/idt/ipmr.nsf/ac4c1079924cf935c1256c76004ba1a6/dfd1fcf33e53c2ecc125794f00359d25/$FILE/Brillantes%20&%20Fernandes_IPMR_Volume%2012_Issue%202.pdf
- Brillantes, Alex Jr. B. and Maricel T. Fernandez (2009). Philippines, in Public Administration and Public Governance in ASEAN Member Countries and Korea, Pan Suk Kim, ed. Choon Wan Lim, Daeyoung Moonhwasa Publishing Co., Seoul , Korea
- Brillantes, Alex Jr. B. and Jose O. Tiu Sonco (2010) “Decentralization and Local Governance in the Philippines” in Evan Berman (ed.) Handbook of Public Administration in Southeast Asia: Thailand, Malaysia, Philippines, HongKong and Macau, Taylor and Francis Publishers
- Brillantes, Alex Jr. B. and Herisadel P. Flores (2010) "Decentralization and Good Urban Governance in Southeast Asia: Focus on the Philippines, Indonesia and Thailand" in Urbanisation in Southeast Asian Countries, ISEAS-ASEAN Studies Centre and Centre for Liveable Cities, Singapore
- Co, Edna E.A. (2010). "Road Infrastructure in the Philippines and some challenges to reform" in The Politics of Change in the Philippines by Yuko Kasuya and Nathan Gilbert Quimpo (eds.), Anvil Publishing Inc., pp. 239-261.
- Cuaresma, Jocelyn C. (2009) "Institutional Responses to GIS Adoption for RPTA in Local Governments," in Erwin Alampay (ed) Living the Information Society in Asia, IDRC and ISEAS Press, Canada, pp. 158-185.
- Domingo, Ma. Oliva Z. (2009). Philanthropy in South East Asia. In Helmut Anthier and Stefan Toepler (eds.), International Encyclopedia of Civil Society. New York: Springer, 1700 pp.
- Domingo, Ma. Oliva Z. (2008). Governance in the Philippine Third Sector: Highlights from the Country Study, in Samiul Hasan and Jenny Onyx (eds.), Comparative Sector Governance in Asia: Structure: Process, and Political Economy, pp. 277-291. New York: Springer. (Recognized by the University of the Philippines as an International Publication Award)
- Domingo, Ma. Oliva Z. and Hasan S. (2008). Perceptions of Third Sector Governance in Asia, in Samiul Hasan and Jenny Onyx (eds.) Comparative Sector Governance in Asia: Structure: Process, and Political Economy, Chapter 4, pp. 71-86. New York: Springer.
- Mendoza, Ma. Fe V. (2009). Influencing Public Policy, in David Stephens (ed.), Higher Education and International Capacity Building: twenty-five years of higher education links, University of Bristol Papers in Education: Comarative and international studies, Symposium Books, UK, pp. 185-208 (Given the International Publication Award in November 2009)
- Mendoza, Ma. Fe V. (2008). Bringing Electricity Reform to the Philippines, The Electricity Journal, Vol. 21, Issue 10, Elsevier, N.Y., pp. 42-58
- Raquiza, Maria Victoria, Roque A., Ssewakiryanga, R. and Valderrama M. (2010).'Towards More Effective Aid: Assessing Reform Constraints in the North' April 2010, an on-line publication of Eurodad and Reality of Aid, pp.1-26
Local - Whole Book
- Abueva, Jose V. (2008). Reinventing U.P. as the National University: Learning for Truth, Leadership and Social Transformation, CLCD-UP NCPAG, 615 pp.
- Brillantes, Alex Jr. B. (2009). Social Artistry: Dignity, Development and Governance in Siningbayan: Art of Nation-Building. UNDP, NCPAG and BLAFI, Inc.
- Brillantes, Alex Jr. B., Simeon A. Ilago, and Raphael Montes (2010). eds The Future of Local Autonomy. UP-NCPAG-CLRG
- Brillantes, Alex Jr. B., Danilo R. Reyes, Bootes Esden-Lopos and Jose O. TiuSonco (2010). Reinventing Government in the Philippines: The Makati Experience, UP NCPAG and University of Makati. 401 pages
- Domingo, Ma. Oliva Z. (2009). The Leadership and Governance of Constitutional Commissions: Self-Assessment and Alternative Views and Assessments (2004-2007), CLCD- UP NCPAG, 149 pp.
- Mendoza, Maria Fe V. and G.H. Ambat, 2010. Economic Reforms for Philippine Competitiveness. A Policy Monograph. UP Open University and the UK Foreign Commonwealth Offices, Manila.
- Mendoza, Maria Fe V., Minerva S. Baylon, Ebinezer R. Florano, and A.G.A. Sobrepeña (2008). Fostering Democratic Governance: Sustaining the Gains and Learning from the Pains. Working Paper series No. 10
- Tiglao, Noriel C. & Erwin G.A. Alampay (2008). Mapping ICT4D Projects in the Philippines, Philippine Journal of Public Administration, Vol 52, No 1 (2008).
Local - Book Chapter
- Brillantes, Alex Jr. B. (2009). Capacity Building Imperatives under a Federal Regime, Chap. VII, Federalism Study: Shift and Transition. Local Government Development Foundation (LOGODEF) and Konrad Adenauer Stiftung Foundation
- Brillantes, Alex Jr. B. (2008). Interlocal Cooperation as a Service Delivery Mechanism: Some Policy Options. Center and Localities: Dynamics of Intergovernmental Relations. Klaus Preschle and Gaudioso Sosmena, eds. LOGODEF, Manila, Philippines, pp. 25-37
- Brillantes, Alex Jr. B. & Maricel T. Fernandez (2009). Gawad Kalinga: Model of Philippine Public Administration and Governance, included in the book Builder of Dreams authored by Antonio Meloto, published by Gawad Kalinga Community Development Foundation, Inc., May 2009, pp. 364-367
- Brillantes, Alex Jr. B. and Maricel T. Fernandez (2009) Politics, Governance, and Reform Imperatives: Issues and Challenges for a Federal Philippines. Envisioning a Federal Philippines, Klaus Preschle and Edmund Tayao, eds. LOGODEF, Manila, Philippines, pp. 109-123.
- Brillantes, Alex Jr. B., Simeon A. Ilago, & Raphael Montes Jr. (2009). The Future of Local Autonomy: Decentralization and Federalism. Manila: Konrad Adenauer Stiftung and Center for Local and Regional Governance, UP-NCPAG
- Brillantes, Alex Jr. B., Danilo R. Reyes, Bootes Esden-Lopos, and Jose O. Tiu Sonco (2010). Chapter 1, Introduction: Reinventing Government in the Philippines: The Makati Experience. pp 1-78.
- Co, Edna E.A. (2010). "Road Infrastructure in the Philippines and some challenges to reform" in The Politics of Change in the Philippines. Yuko Kasuya and Nathan Gilbert Quimpo (eds.) Anvil Publishing Inc. 2010, pp. 239-261.
- Cuaresma, Jocelyn C.(2009). Institutional Responses to GIS Adoption for RPTA in Local Governments. In Erwin Alampay (editor). Living the Information Society in Asia. Institute of Southeast Asian Studies, Singapore, and the International Development Research Centre, Canada, pp. 158-185.
- De Vera, J. Prospero E. III (2008). Institutions and Bureaucracy, in Modernizing Philippine Agriculture and Fisheries: the AFMA Implementation Experience; edited by Benedicto R. Rayco;Ch. 12, pp. 273-304
- Mariano, Vicente D. (editor) (2009). Corruption and Implementation: Case Studies in Philippine Administration, by Vicente Chua Reyes Jr.
- Mariano, Vicente D. (editor) (2009). Slum Upgrading and Urban Renewal of the National Government Center, by Rolyn B. Francisco, Quezon City: UP NCPAG
- Ocenar, Remigio D., Alex B. Brillantes Jr., Cuthertson, Coutts & Tumanot (2009). Improving the Delivery of Agricultural Extension Services in the Philippines: Lessons Learned and Future Directions
- Ocenar, Remigio D. (2008). The Delivery of Agricultural Extension Services in Leyte. pp. 33-66 in Improving the Delivery of Agricultural Extension Services in the Philippines: Lessons Learned and Future Directions.
- Raquiza, Maria Victoria R. (2009). ‘From Bad to Worse: The Social Impact of the Economic Crisis on the Philippines ’, Social Watch International Publication; pp. 136-137.
- Raquiza, Maria Victoria R. (2010). “On Poverty, Hunger and Unemployment: Off track but not Without Hope’ in ‘Winning the Numbers, Losing the War’, (the MDG Shadow Report), a Social Watch Philippines Publication supported by the UN Millennium Campaign, pp. 29-42.
- Reyes, Danilo R. Co-authored with A. Brillantes, B. Esden and J. Tiu Songco (2010). Chapter 1, Introduction: "Reinventing Government in the Philippines: The Makati Experience;"
- Reyes, Danilo R. (2008). The Study of Administrative History: Public Administration as an Ahistorical Discipline. Philippine Journal of Public Administration. 52 (2-4) April-Oct, pp. 195-223.
- Tiglao, Noriel C. & Erwin G. Alampay, (2008). Mapping ICT4D Projects in the Philippines, Philippine Journal of Public Administration, Vol 52, No 1
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